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Special relativity is a theory proposed by Albert Einstein that describes the propagation of matter and light at high speeds. This **[course_title]** builds beyond the introduction begun in the Physics course Mechanics I. With this course you will be able to describe the fundamental phenomena of relativistic physics within the algebraic formalism of four-vectors. You will be able to solve simple problems involving Lorentz transformations

**Assessment**

This course does not involve any written exams. Students need to answer 5 assignment questions to complete the course, the answers will be in the form of written work in pdf or word. Students can write the answers in their own time. Each answer needs to be 200 words (1 Page). Once the answers are submitted, the tutor will check and assess the work.

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Course Credit: Open Culture

### Course Curriculum

MODULE 01: Scale | 00:06:00 | ||

MODULE 01: Scale Office Hours | 00:01:00 | ||

If we could routinely travel near the speed of light, would all of special relativity be intuitive? | 00:01:00 | ||

With today’s technology, how close to the speed of light can we travel? | 00:01:00 | ||

Why can’t we just push on an object to increase its speed up to or even beyond the speed of light? | 00:01:00 | ||

You suggested a reason why something can’t be sped up to or beyond light speed, but what about an object that always has speed greater than that of light? | 00:02:00 | ||

MODULE 01: Scale Review Video | 00:01:00 | ||

MODULE 02: Speed | 00:13:00 | ||

MODULE 02: Speed Office Hours | 00:01:00 | ||

When we’re traveling in a car, we certainly can tell we are moving, so in what sense can we claim to be at rest? | 00:01:00 | ||

So, if all motion is relative, does the Earth go around the Sun or the Sun go around the Earth? | 00:01:00 | ||

You didn’t use the language of “inertial” frames in your discussion, but I’ve heard they’re relevant to the ideas you are covering. So, what is an inertial frame, and why do they matter? | 00:02:00 | ||

What is the litmus test for being in an inertial frame? | 00:01:00 | ||

When we are at rest on Earth’s surface, are we in an inertial frame? | 00:01:00 | ||

MODULE 02: Speed Review Video | 00:02:00 | ||

MODULE 03: The Speed of Light | 00:07:00 | ||

MODULE 03: The Speed of Light Office Hours | 00:01:00 | ||

What is it about light that makes its speed so special? | 00:02:00 | ||

You said that electromagnetic theory yields 671 million miles per hour for the speed of electromagnetic waves. How does it do that? | 00:00:00 | ||

If we fire a light beam toward a person who is running away, won’t we claim that the light approaches them slower than c? | 00:02:00 | ||

In class, you went through the history of thinking on light and the aether pretty swiftly. Can you fill out that discussion a little? | 00:04:00 | ||

MODULE 03: The Speed of Light | 00:09:00 | ||

MODULE 03: The Speed of Light Office Hours | 00:01:00 | ||

Are we sure the speed of light is really constant? | 00:01:00 | ||

What is the Michelson and Morely experiment? | 00:02:00 | ||

How did Michelson and Morely look for the aether? | 00:01:00 | ||

What role did experiment play in Einstein’s proposal that the speed of light is constant? | 00:01:00 | ||

Is the speed of light constant when measured by someone who is accelerating? | 00:01:00 | ||

MODULE 03: The Speed of Light Review Video | 00:01:00 | ||

MODULE 04: Units | 00:06:00 | ||

MODULE 04: Units Office Hours | 00:01:00 | ||

Is it really ok to use c = 1 foot/ns? | 00:02:00 | ||

If we use units in which c = 1,and then suppress factors of c in our calculation, what if we later want to convert our answer back to more conventional units in which c is not one? how do we do that? | 00:05:00 | ||

MODULE 04: Units Review Video | 00:01:00 | ||

MODULE 05: The Mathematics of Speed | 00:11:00 | ||

MODULE 05: The Mathematics of Speed Review Video | 00:02:00 | ||

MODULE 06: Relativity of Simultaneity | 00:10:00 | ||

MODULE 06: Relativity of Simultaneity | 00:05:00 | ||

MODULE 06: Relativity of Simultaneity Office Hours | 00:01:00 | ||

Is all this just a fancy way of saying that the farther away an object is, the longer it takes the light from the object to reach us? | 00:01:00 | ||

Do you really believe in the “relativity of simultaneity”? | 00:01:00 | ||

Aren’t the effects too small to care about? | 00:01:00 | ||

Isn’t all this just an optical illusion to do with light? | 00:01:00 | ||

With different observers not agreeing on what happens at the same time, how can there be any results that are objectively true? How can there be science? | 00:01:00 | ||

MODULE 06: Relativity of Simultaneity Review Video | 00:01:00 | ||

MODULE 07: Pitfalls | 00:09:00 | ||

MODULE 07: Pitfalls Office Hours | 00:01:00 | ||

I get what you’re saying about the need to post-process observations to figure out what ‘really’ happened. But doesn’t this contradict the whole result of the treaty signing ceremony, which was based on what the presidents see? | 00:03:00 | ||

Which is more important — what you experience or what happened? | 00:01:00 | ||

How do the measurements of two people, that are not moving relative to each other, differ? | 00:01:00 | ||

MODULE 07: Pitfalls Review Video | 00:02:00 | ||

MODULE 08: Calculating the Time Difference | 00:15:00 | ||

MODULE 08: Calculating the Time Difference Review Video | 00:01:00 | ||

MODULE 09: Time in Motion | 00:10:00 | ||

MODULE 09: Time in Motion Office Hours | 00:01:00 | ||

Can you explain again why the ball of light doesn’t miss the top mirror when the clock is moving? | 00:01:00 | ||

Wait: If the ball of light is bouncing up and down—and not coming to our eyes—how do we actually see it? | 00:01:00 | ||

Since the clock we’ve called “moving” can claim that it is stationary and everything else is moving, can’t we argue that from the standpoint of the “moving” clock, it is the “stationary” clock that ticks slowly? | 00:01:00 | ||

Is the slowing of the tick-tocks you found just a strange property of a strange clock — the light clock? In what sense is the light clock really a clock, anyway? | 00:01:00 | ||

How do you really know that the slowing of time we found on a light clock implies that there would be a slowing of time on any clock? | 00:02:00 | ||

MODULE 09: Time in Motion Review Video | 00:01:00 | ||

MODULE 10: How Fast Does Time Slow? | 00:18:00 | ||

MODULE 10: How Fast Does Time Slow? Office Hours | 00:01:00 | ||

Is time dilation real or a matter of perception? | 00:01:00 | ||

I’ve heard that these effects of motion on time affect the GPS (global positioning system). How is that? | 00:01:00 | ||

If there is no universal notion of time when objects are in motion, how do we talk about the age of the universe? After all, the universe is expanding, so galaxies are all moving apart from each other. | 00:01:00 | ||

What would happen if you had a version of the light clock with the ball of light replaced by a baseball whose speed behaved in the manner Newton would have predicted? | 00:01:00 | ||

MODULE 10: How Fast Does Time Slow? Review Video | 00:02:00 | ||

MODULE 11: The Mathematics of Slow Time | 00:11:00 | ||

MODULE 11: The Mathematics of Slow Time Office Hours | 00:01:00 | ||

In the derivation of time dilation, you have the light’s speed at ccos(θ). How is that compatible with the speed of light being constant? | 00:01:00 | ||

Does the moving clock “kick” the ball of light to move rightward? | 00:01:00 | ||

Since there is a limit to how fast anything can travel—the speed of light—is there a limit to how much slower a moving clock will tick? | 00:01:00 | ||

What happens if v=c? Does time stop? | 00:01:00 | ||

Is there a quick way to estimate the effect of motion on time when the motion involves ordinary, everyday speeds? | 00:03:00 | ||

MODULE 11: The Mathematics of Slow Time Review Video | 00:02:00 | ||

MODULE 12: Time Dilation: Examples | 00:14:00 | ||

MODULE 12: Time Dilation: Examples Review Video | 00:01:00 | ||

MODULE 13: Time Dilation: Experimental Evidence | 00:09:00 | ||

MODULE 13: Time Dilation: Experimental Evidence Office Hours | 00:01:00 | ||

Might future work reveal that even Einstein’s ideas are superseded by a yet more precise understanding? | 00:01:00 | ||

MODULE 13: Time Dilation: Experimental Evidence Review Video | 00:01:00 | ||

MODULE 14: The Reality of Past, Present, and Future | 00:14:00 | ||

MODULE 14: The Reality of Past, Present, and Future Office Hours | 00:01:00 | ||

If the “now” for someone far away can include things which for us are in the distant past, can that someone influence our past? | 00:01:00 | ||

Is there a limit on the size of the angle the “now” slice—the equal-time slices—can swing through? | 00:01:00 | ||

MODULE 14: The Reality of Past, Present, and Future Review Video | 00:02:00 | ||

MODULE 15: Time Dilation: Intutitive Explanation | 00:04:00 | ||

MODULE 15: Time Dilation: Intutitive Explanation Office Hours | 00:01:00 | ||

In this intuitive explanation of time dilation, you invoked a strange idea—“speed through time”. Does this idea make any sense? And if it does, isn’t the speed of time something silly, like 1 second per second? | 00:01:00 | ||

MODULE 15: Time Dilation: Intutitive Explanation Review Video | 00:01:00 | ||

MODULE 16: Motion’s Effect on Space | 00:17:00 | ||

MODULE 16: Motion’s Effect on Space Office Hours | 00:01:00 | ||

You noted that objects are only Lorentz contracted along their direction of motion. Can you review that argument? | 00:04:00 | ||

If an object in motion shrinks, what force is compressing it? | 00:01:00 | ||

If anyone with non-changing motion can claim to be at rest, then from George’s perspective is Gracie (and the Platform) Lorentz contracted as well? | 00:01:00 | ||

If two sets of observers each say the other is contracted, does this lead to a contradiction or a paradox? | 00:01:00 | ||

If two observers in relative motion don’t agree on durations and lengths, what do they agree on? Anything? | 00:02:00 | ||

MODULE 16: Motion’s Effect on Space Review Video | 00:02:00 | ||

MODULE 17: Motion’s Effect on Space: Mathematical Form | 00:06:00 | ||

MODULE 17: Motion’s Effect on Space: Mathematical Form Office Hours | 00:01:00 | ||

In deriving the length contraction formula, you used the fact that according to George, Gracie’s clock is running slow. But couldn’t we also say that from Gracie’s perspective, George’s clock is running slow, and so come to a different answer? | 00:03:00 | ||

Since there is a limit to speed, namely c, is there a limit to how Lorentz contracted an object can be? | 00:01:00 | ||

MODULE 17: Motion’s Effect on Space: Mathematical Form Review Video | 00:01:00 | ||

MODULE 18: Length Contraction: Examples | 00:04:00 | ||

MODULE 18: Length Contraction: Examples | 00:07:00 | ||

MODULE 18: Length Contraction: Examples | 00:08:00 | ||

MODULE 18: Length Contraction: Examples Review Video | 00:02:00 | ||

MODULE 19: Coordinates for Space | 00:09:00 | ||

MODULE 19: Coordinates for Space 1 | 00:12:00 | ||

MODULE 19: Coordinates for Space 2 | 00:05:00 | ||

MODULE 19: Coordinates for Space Office Hours | 00:01:00 | ||

What is the relationship between physics and coordinates? | 00:01:00 | ||

Are certain choices of coordinates preferred over others? | 00:01:00 | ||

Do we need coordinates? | 00:01:00 | ||

MODULE 19: Coordinates for Space Review Video | 00:01:00 | ||

MODULE 20: Coordinates for Time | 00:14:00 | ||

MODULE 20: Coordinates for Time Office Hours | 00:01:00 | ||

I get space coordinates, but in what sense is time really a coordinate? | 00:01:00 | ||

So, is time the “fourth dimension”? | 00:01:00 | ||

Who introduced the idea of time as an additional dimension? | 00:01:00 | ||

The notion of a grid of clocks spread out through space seems like a fairly elaborate framework. Why do we bother introducing it? | 00:01:00 | ||

If two observers, however far apart they might be, are not moving relative to one another, should we consider them to be part of the same reference frame? | 00:01:00 | ||

You mentioned that having clocks spread out through space alleviates the issue of observation vs measurement. How so? | 00:01:00 | ||

MODULE 20: Coordinates for Time Review Video | 00:02:00 | ||

MODULE 21: Coordinates in Motion | 00:19:00 | ||

MODULE 21: Coordinates in Motion Office Hours | 00:01:00 | ||

So, are the clocks in the moving frame actually out of sync with one another? | 00:01:00 | ||

Recalling that the “moving” frame can rightly consider itself stationary, what do observers in the “moving” frame think about the clocks in the “stationary” frame? | 00:01:00 | ||

Is the lack of synchronization due to a failure with the synchronization procedure or would any synchronization method yield the same result? | 00:01:00 | ||

From my perspective observing a moving frame, how would the asynchronous clocks manifest themselves? | 00:01:00 | ||

How would our conclusions change if in the clock synchronization procedure we fired canon balls instead of light beams? | 00:01:00 | ||

MODULE 21: Coordinates in Motion Review Video | 00:02:00 | ||

MODULE 22: Clocks in Motion: Examples 1 | 00:10:00 | ||

MODULE 22: Clocks in Motion: Examples 2 | 00:14:00 | ||

MODULE 22: Clocks in Motion: Examples Office Hours | 00:01:00 | ||

If the reading on two clocks in a frame rushing by me differ by an amount Δt′ — say, one clock reads 12 noon and the other reads 12 noon – Δt′ — how long will it take from my perspective for the lagging clock to strike 12 noon? | 00:02:00 | ||

What is the relationship between the two formulae describing the time difference, according to a stationary frame, between events claimed to simultaneous by those in the moving frame: Lvc2–v2 and Δx′v/c2? | 00:04:00 | ||

MODULE 22: Clocks in Motion: Examples Office Hours | 00:01:00 | ||

I see how asynchronous clocks justify each team’s claim of a longer length for an object at rest in their frame. But what if Team Platform tosses Team Train a ruler to measure the train’s length? Now explain Team Train’s claim of a longer length. | 00:01:00 | ||

In the example you gave in class, George and Germaine disagree regarding which firecracker went off first. So, is it true that for any two events, some observers will think one happened first while some will claim the other happened first? | 00:01:00 | ||

MODULE 23: The Lorentz Transformation | 00:08:00 | ||

MODULE 23: The Lorentz Transformation 1 | 00:09:00 | ||

MODULE 23: The Lorentz Transformation 2 | 00:07:00 | ||

MODULE 23: The Lorentz Transformation Office Hours | 00:01:00 | ||

Since space and time coordinates are mixed together in the Lorentz transformation, does that mean space and time are fundamentally the same? | 00:01:00 | ||

Does the Lorentz transformation represent new physics beyond time dilation and length contraction? | 00:01:00 | ||

Can you explain again how to understand asynchronous clocks starting from the Lorentz Transformation?” | 00:06:00 | ||

When we talk about asynchronous clocks in a moving frame, we used Δt′ for the time difference in the reading of two such clocks which we witness from the platform perspective. Shouldn’t we be using Δt? | 00:04:00 | ||

MODULE 23: The Lorentz Transformation Review Video | 00:01:00 | ||

MODULE 24: Lorentz Transformation: Examples | 00:07:00 | ||

MODULE 24: Lorentz Transformation: Examples 1 | 00:08:00 | ||

MODULE 24: Lorentz Transformation: Examples 2 | 00:06:00 | ||

MODULE 24: Lorentz Transformation: Examples Review Video | 00:01:00 | ||

MODULE 25: Combining Velocities | 00:07:00 | ||

MODULE 25: Combining Velocities 1 | 00:10:00 | ||

MODULE 25: Combining Velocities 2 | 00:03:00 | ||

MODULE 25: Combining Velocities 3 | 00:06:00 | ||

MODULE 25: Combining Velocities Review Video | 00:02:00 | ||

MODULE 26: Spacetime Diagrams | 00:14:00 | ||

MODULE 26: Spacetime Diagrams 1 | 00:11:00 | ||

MODULE 26: Spacetime Diagrams 2 | 00:10:00 | ||

MODULE 26: Spacetime Diagrams 3 | 00:04:00 | ||

MODULE 26: Spacetime Diagrams Office Hours | 00:01:00 | ||

In a spacetime diagram, how do you see that observers in relative motion will all agree that the speed of light is constant? | 00:07:00 | ||

In a spacetime diagram, how do you see that if two events are spacelike separated – so have no causal connection – then different observers can disagree regarding which event happened first? | 00:07:00 | ||

In class you showed how the relativity of simultaneity appears in spacetime diagrams. Can you reason the other way around—namely, derive the relativity of simultaneity from spacetime diagrams? | 00:11:00 | ||

MODULE 26: Spacetime Diagrams Review Video | 00:02:00 | ||

MODULE 27: Lorentz Transformation: As An Exotic Rotation Review Video | 00:01:00 | ||

MODULE 27: Lorentz Transformation: As An Exotic Rotation Office Hours | 00:01:00 | ||

When you write the Lorentz transformation in a form that looks similar to a rotation matrix, is that just an analogy or is there an associated geometrical interpretation? | 00:15:00 | ||

MODULE 27: Lorentz Transformation: As An Exotic Rotation Review Video | 00:01:00 | ||

MODULE 28: Reality of Past, Present, Future: Math Details | 00:12:00 | ||

MODULE 28: Reality of Past, Present, Future: Math Details Office Hours | 00:01:00 | ||

How do you conclude from all this “swinging” of now slices that past present and future are all equally real? | 00:01:00 | ||

So, what’s your view regarding what all this says about reality? | 00:01:00 | ||

If Chewie had a telescope with a camera filming comings and goings on Earth, would that footage show a “jump” in time when he starts to move? | 00:14:00 | ||

MODULE 28: Reality of Past, Present, Future: Math Details Review Video | 00:01:00 | ||

MODULE 29: Invariants | 00:05:00 | ||

MODULE 29: Invariants 1 | 00:11:00 | ||

MODULE 29: Invariants Office Hours | 00:01:00 | ||

What if you do a calculation of something that’s supposed to be a coordinate invariant, but the value you get in one coordinate system differs from that in another coordinate system? | 00:01:00 | ||

How does the invariant interval relate to time dilation? | 00:01:00 | ||

The Lorentz transformation is based on the speed of light being constant. But can we see the constancy of the speed of light directly from the equations? | 00:02:00 | ||

MODULE 29: Invariants 4 | 00:05:00 | ||

MODULE 29: Invariants Office Hours | 00:01:00 | ||

In ordinary geometry, a circle is the collection of all points that are the same distance from, say, the origin. What is the corresponding geometrical concept for a collection of points that are the same invariant interval from the origin? | 00:05:00 | ||

In ordinary geometry, the usual “invariant” \Delta x^2 + \Delta y^ has an immediate interpretation: the distance between two points. Can you explain again the interpretation of the invariant interval −c2Δt2+Δx2 in special relativity? | 00:05:00 | ||

In a spacetime diagram how do I figure out the spacing between tick marks along the axis of a moving frame relative to those of the stationary frame? | 00:07:00 | ||

Couldn’t you also prove that all observers agree on the invariant interval using hyperbolic trig identities? | 00:06:00 | ||

MODULE 29: Invariants Review Video | 00:02:00 | ||

MODULE 30: Cause and Effect: A Spacetime Invariant | 00:13:00 | ||

MODULE 30: Cause and Effect: A Spacetime Invariant 1 | 00:10:00 | ||

MODULE 30: Cause and Effect: A Spacetime Invariant Office Hours | 00:01:00 | ||

In discussing causality, we’ve been assuming that nothing can go faster than the speed of light. What would happen if something could exceed light speed? | 00:01:00 | ||

I get what you’re saying about cause and effect being upended if objects could travel faster than the speed of light, but can you show me that more explicitly? | 00:07:00 | ||

MODULE 30: Cause and Effect: A Spacetime Invariant Review Video | 00:03:00 | ||

MODULE 31: Intuition and Time Dilation: Math Approach | 00:07:00 | ||

MODULE 31: Intuition and Time Dilation: Math Approach Review Video | 00:02:00 | ||

MODULE 32: The Pole in the Barn Paradox | 00:14:00 | ||

MODULE 32: The Pole in the Barn Paradox Office Hours | 00:01:00 | ||

Isn’t it a cop out to say that both perspectives are right? Either the pole fits in the barn or it doesn’t, right? | 00:01:00 | ||

MODULE 32: The Pole in the Barn Paradox Review Video | 00:01:00 | ||

MODULE 33: The Pole in the Barn: Quantitative Details | 00:21:00 | ||

MODULE 33: The Pole in the Barn: Quantitative Details Office Hours | 00:01:00 | ||

Couldn’t you have carried out the Pole in the Barn calculations with the Lorentz transformation? How would that relate to the calculation you did? | 00:08:00 | ||

MODULE 33: The Pole in the Barn: Quantitative Details Review Video | 00:02:00 | ||

MODULE 34: The Pole in the Barn: Spacetime Diagrams | 00:04:00 | ||

MODULE 34: The Pole in the Barn: Spacetime Diagrams Review Video | 00:01:00 | ||

MODULE 35: Pole in the Barn: Lock the Doors | 00:12:00 | ||

MODULE 35: Pole in the Barn: Lock the Doors Office Hours | 00:01:00 | ||

How can the pole crush if it is, say, made of steel? | 00:01:00 | ||

You asked us to think about why ΔL0 comes into the calculation of how far the pole will move relative to the barn while its front clock is ‘catching up’ to its rear clock. I’m still unsure of the answer. Help please. | 00:03:00 | ||

MODULE 35: Pole in the Barn: Lock the Doors Review Video | 00:02:00 | ||

MODULE 36: The Twin Paradox | 00:09:00 | ||

Is the Twin Paradox rightly described as an example of time travel? | 00:01:00 | ||

Does special relativity provide a prescription for going back in time? | 00:01:00 | ||

Why is there such a difference between going forward and going backward in time? | 00:01:00 | ||

Is any of this related to time slowing down near massive objects? | 00:01:00 | ||

What if we got rid of accelerations by teaming Gracie with someone else, say Germaine, who is heading toward Earth? Imagine that Germaine synchs her clock with Gracie’s as she passes. When Germaine passes George, whose clock will show elapsed time? | 00:01:00 | ||

MODULE 36: The Twin Paradox Review Video | 00:01:00 | ||

MODULE 37: The Twin Paradox: Without Acceleration | 00:17:00 | ||

MODULE 37: The Twin Paradox: Without Acceleration 1 | 00:07:00 | ||

MODULE 37: The Twin Paradox: Without Acceleration Review Video | 00:02:00 | ||

MODULE 38: Twin Paradox: The Twins Communicate | 00:13:00 | ||

MODULE 38: Twin Paradox: The Twins Communicate Office Hours | 00:01:00 | ||

How could the mere act of turning around make such a difference in how much George and Gracie age? | 00:01:00 | ||

Compared to an observer’s own clock, another clock that’s in motion ticks off time slowly. So, apart from the accelerated section of the scenario, what gives with George and Gracie each seeing the other wave quickly — time elapsing quickly? | 00:01:00 | ||

MODULE 38: Twin Paradox: The Twins Communicate Review Video | 00:02:00 | ||

MODULE 39: The Relativistic Doppler Effect | 00:12:00 | ||

MODULE 39: The Relativistic Doppler Effect Review Video | 00:02:00 | ||

MODULE 40: The Twins Communicate, Quantitative | 00:11:00 | ||

MODULE 40: The Twins Communicate, Quantitative Office Hours | 00:01:00 | ||

Do the videos of George and Gracie in fast and slow motion accurately portray what each of them would literally see during the twin paradox scenario? | 00:01:00 | ||

You’ve given three explanations for the Twin Paradox—which one is best to keep in mind? | 00:02:00 | ||

MODULE 40: The Twins Communicate, Quantitative Review Video | 00:02:00 | ||

MODULE 41: Implications for Mass: Intuitive Explanation and Motivation | 00:10:00 | ||

MODULE 41: Implications for Mass: Intuitive Explanation and Motivation Review Video | 00:02:00 | ||

MODULE 42: Force and Energy | 00:20:00 | ||

MODULE 42: Force and Energy | 00:07:00 | ||

MODULE 42: Force and Energy Office Hours | 00:01:00 | ||

How do you derive the relativistic form of the kinetic energy from the differential form derived in class? | 00:10:00 | ||

MODULE 42: Force and Energy Review Video | 00:02:00 | ||

MODULE 43: E=mc2 | 00:19:00 | ||

MODULE 43: E=mc2 Office Hours | 00:01:00 | ||

The conversion of mass into energy is often associated with nuclear forces. Is that essential? | 00:01:00 | ||

When you turn on a flashlight and it emits light, does its mass go down? | 00:01:00 | ||

If you heat up a sandwich, without jostling any atoms free, does its mass increase? | 00:01:00 | ||

I thought E=mc2. So, what is the factor of γ doing in E=m0c2γ? | 00:01:00 | ||

MODULE 43: E=mc2 Office Hours 1 | 00:01:00 | ||

What is a 4-vector? | 00:05:00 | ||

What insights can 4-vectors provide? | 00:10:00 | ||

MODULE 43: E=mc2 Review Video | 00:02:00 | ||

MODULE 44: Special Relativity: Course Recap | 00:02:00 | ||

Assessment | |||

Submit Your Assignment | 00:00:00 | ||

Certification | 00:00:00 |

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